9 décembre 2022
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AccueilIdéeImenɣi n Anwal, “La Bataille d’Anoual” (Rif), 21-23 yulyu 1921 : 100 iseggasen...

Imenɣi n Anwal, “La Bataille d’Anoual” (Rif), 21-23 yulyu 1921 : 100 iseggasen aya !

S TMAZIƔT

Imenɣi n Anwal, “La Bataille d’Anoual” (Rif), 21-23 yulyu 1921 : 100 iseggasen aya !

Imenɣi n Anwal, gar Irifiyen akked iserdasen n Spanya teldi tabburt i tnekra n tmura n « wadda » (pays colonisés). Ittwassen deg umaḍal, acku d tikkelt tamezwarut i temceḥ taɣebbart yiwet tmurt n Urupa (Spanya) mi tedda ad tekcem adrar n Arif. Imjahden n Arif, deffir Muḥend Abdelkrim n At Yusef Waâli (Abdelkrim El Khettabi), deg Ajdir, kkren yakan si 1920 akken ad gen afrag i tikli n iserdasen n Spanya. Mi yefra imenɣi-nni, d nnger, d timeqbert n iserdasen Isbenyulen… d taɣuri i yiɣerfan ittuhersen (une école pour les pays colonisés).

Akken illa umezruy n  imenɣi n Anwal, di 21-23 yulyu 1921 :

(Ittwakkes-d seg udlis ‘’Muḥend Abdelkrim, di Dewla n Ripublik’’, Aumer U Lamara, éditions L’Harmattan, Paris 2012).

… Di tnemmast n lkazirna n Anwal, jiniral Sylvestre iẓra zelgen wussan-is. 

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Ayen iqas akked tikli-nni yedhem di tazwara, inwa ad as-gen abrid ahrawan ɣer Ajdir. Inwa tiddi-nni ibedd di tɣaltin n Arif tella-d am win kan isgunfan si tazzla-s akken ad irnu ugar tazzla ɣer zdat. Mi yenti abrid-is, iṭṭef tiɣilt n Anwal, isla ulin-d Irifiyen ɣer wedrar n Lqama, isla gan ‘’la ḥarka’’, irgazen s iserdan d ibeckiḍen, ulin-d ad as-gezmen abrid. Netta, ur asen-iga ccan. Ibna ad ten-idhem am aḍu-nni iddmen iferrawen n tneqlett di taggara n lexrif, ifka-ten yal tama. Targit-is ur as-teffiɣ akken i tt-isarem. Gar ifergan n wuzzal d lminat, di tnemmast n Anwal, di tafukt yerɣan, Sylvestre iqqim itezzi am yizem di tnemmast n tesraft deg yeɣli. Urfan, tikkal rennun ugar di tidderɣelt. 

Ɣas yella wawal gar-as d jiniral Berenguer, i yellan imir akkin gar Ijebliyen d Tiṭwan, akked wawal yellan gar-as d ‘’Mohamed Ben Abdelkrim’’ akken i yas-iɣar, si tama n Nekkur, tidyanin n Aberran, Iɣriben , Sidi Dris akked tuffɣa-nni si Anwal i yasen-itwakksen, sberken-as tawenza. Sylvestre zun ifra d rray-is. Amek ad iqqim, ad issiwel, neɣ ad ifru tamsalt gar-as d ‘’los Moros’’ di lawan deg i yas-d-zzin s ibeckiḍen-nsen, deg imekwan deg yella netta d wanda yesbedd lâesker-is. I Sylvestre tefra, ‘’ ur illi wawal akked imelluẓa del Rif’’  !

Muḥend Abdelkrim si tama-s, ur yuyis. Skud yeṭṭef adrar, d afrag zdat tikli n Spanya, izmer ad d-yaf udem akken ad iqqim i tifrat. Tazmert ilhan d tin iddan deg ubrid n talwit. S tezmert n yemjahden-nni yeddurin taẓrut, i yefkan aqerru-nsen i tmurt-nsen, issarem ad issinef ugar ɣef iqerra n waytmaten-is di yal tama n tmurt-is. Di Mezwira neɣ deffir ifergan n Anwal, Muḥend igguni ugar awal ar as-d-yasen si tama wadda, awal n Azerqan neɣ n Aâlluc, irgazen-nni yellan d imsiwḍen (liaison) gar-as d Spanya di Nekkur, Mellila neɣ imukan nniḍen. Di tebratin i yura i Spanya i yasen-ifka ad tent-siwḍen, awal-is yeqqim kan deg ubrid n talwit. Inna-yasen  : « …ur riɣ ṭṭrad neɣ isem n imenɣi mgal Spanya. Riɣ talwit d wussan ilhan i tmurt n Arif ɣer tama n tmurt n Spanya, tamurt n tussna akked tmussni … ma teqqim Spanya di tlisa-nni n zik, di Sebta, Mellila akked tegzirin i teṭṭef si zik, nekkni ul nnaɣ yelli i tdukli, …nezmer ad d-naf abrid i tdukli ara idumen ɣer zdat, tadukli i lebni n tmurt, i tɣuzi n iberdan…Nekkni nella d lǧiran ass-a, nesarem ad neqqim d lǧiran n talwit azekka… »

Khattabi

Muḥend Abdelkrim n At Yusef Waâli (Abdelkrim Khattab

Tafat-nni i ẓerren waṭṭawen n Muḥend ɣer zdat akked yimmal, temnuger-itt-id tidderɣelt n Sylvestre akked tin n Berenguer. I nitni, win i d-irefden iɣil-is iwwet Spanya, deg Aberran neɣ imukan nniḍen, ur d-iqqim yid-s wawal. Yiwen ubrid i yellan, d abrid n ṭṭrad d ubarud !

S taɣert-nni nsen i sin, zzin-as s uzagur i webrid n tifrat i yasen-d-ifka Muḥend Abdelkrim, yal yiwen s ubrid-is. Jiniral Berenguer issarem, mi yefra tadyant n ṭṭrad mgal Raysuni deg Ijebliyen (Djebbala), ad isddukel lâesker-is, ad d-yaweḍ ad as-istufu i tnekra n Arif. Issarem ad tt-iselffeɣ zun d aâqqa uzemmur gar iɣuraf. Tamurt n Arif tettunefk i Spanya si tifrat n Algésiras (accords européens), netta ad tt-id-iḥelli s yiɣil-is. Ma d jiniral Sylvestre, s ufus n Berenguer, ifra ad yuɣal akkin ɣer Mellila, ad as-isuffeɣ leḥsab amaynut, Madrid ad issemɣer tazmert n lâesker-is, syen ad d-yuɣal ad iserwet Ajdir akked teɣzut n Lḥusima akken tebɣu tili. I sin yid-sen, yal yiwen si tama-s isedda tiddas-is, s ileqqafen-is netta. I sin yid-sen abrid-nsen yiwen : ur illi yisem n tifrat n talwit akked ‘’los Moros’’. 

Illa deg wawal, « ur izmir ad ikker umulab i tlafsa ». 

Muḥend Abdelkrim iẓra ɣas tiyita n Aberran, Sidi Dris neɣ Iɣriben sergagint Spanya, kksent azaylal i yat Arif, yuɣal-d usirem, ma d Anwal ur as-zmiren, ur as-iga tiṭ akken ad t-iwwet. Deg Anwal llan nnig 6500 yergazen n Spanya s wuzzal-nsen, s lmatrayuzat akked imruden (canons) imeqqranen, mačči d takemmict iserdasen s ibeckiḍen wid ufan deg Aberran. Ayen yellan deg Anwal, d aḥric ameqqran n 24000 iserdasen-nni n Spanya i yellan imir deg wakal n Arif. Ɣas Muḥend izzi-yas s yemjahden i lkazirna n Anwal, d tuzzya n wenbac d tuqqsa kan akken ad ten-isedhu, ur teddun ɣer zdat, ur d-teffɣen, di tallit-nni deg yewwet ad iseddu awal n tifrat d talwit akked Spanya.

Tuzzya-nni ur telli d tin iheggan i tyita tameqqrant. Imjahden i yas-izzin, amur ameqqran deg-sen s ibeckibḍen neɣ s lmatrayuzat i d-kksen i Spanya deg imenɣi n Aberran, Iɣriben neɣ imukan nniḍen. Krad n imruden-nni (les batteries de campagne) i d-kksen si tyita n Iɣriben, ifka-tent Muḥend ɣer Ajdir ; sersen-tent zdat Uẓru n Nekkur, d afrag ɣef Ajdir. Ɣas At Arif gan afrag deg udrar i Sylvestre akked lâesker-is, anezgum ur ikkis deg uzaɣar si tama n yilel. Yal ass, At Waryaɣen bedden ɣef yiman-nsen s ibeckiḍen akken ad dehmen ibaburen izemren ad d-zegren seg waman, di teɣzut n Lḥusima.  

I Muḥend, abrid n tifrat ur irgil ɣas yessawen. Ɣas iffeɣ waâbar gar-as d Spanya, imdanen zemren, s tmuɣli iseggmen akked tmussni-nsen, ad semẓin ayen ur nelhi, ad siherwen abrid isuffuɣen ɣer tafat. Muḥend ira ussan n tafat netta d tmurt n Spanya.

D tidett, uzzlen idammen, ikker herrwel, rɣant tzeɣwa, maca skud yella wawal gar icenga, awal-nni yezmer ad d-iglu s tifrat. D tifrat-nni anda yal yiwen ad iẓer abrid i yeffɣen fella-as, abrid ad ten-isdduklen ɣer yimmal.

Ur illi d tirga. Muḥend issen tamurt-is, issen imdanen n tmurt-is, issen daɣ Spanya seg iseggasen-nni deg yella di Mellila, illa d lqaḍi syen d anelmed n tmaziɣt, d aneɣmas deg uɣmis Corriere del Rif. Netta issarem ad d-isddukkel ayen ilhan si yal tama, am ustu uẓeṭṭa, akken ad yeẓḍ aẓeṭṭa ad ten-isdduklen, am Spanya am tmurt n Arif di Merruk.

Tuffɣa n lâesker n Sylvestre seg Anwal :

Di tzeqqa n Sylvestre, di tnemmast n Anwal, ur d-isuḍ waḍu n tifrat neɣ n wawal akked Irifiyen. Tamuɣli n ifesyanen yiwet : llan di ṭṭrad ad seddun awal n ṭṭrad deg ubrid n ṭṭrad. Wid yellan deg ugraw-nni yezzin i jiniral Sylvestre, am kulunil Morales, anezgum-nsen yiwen : amek zemren ad ffɣen si tesraft deg llan. Isalan i yasen-d-yusan si yal tama yiwen-is : yal tiɣilt i ṭṭfen nitni di tikli-nni n 30 km si Mellila, ass-a zzin-as Irifiyen. Anezgum-nsen innerna ugar mi seddan awal akken ad d-afen ixef -is: ansi d-ffɣen akk Irifiyen-nni s ibeckiḍen nsen ?

Ufan-d mačči d tarbaât-nni n udrar n Lqama i yessawḍen tanekra akka. Mačči d takemmict n yemnayen n At Waryaɣen akked At Temsaman s ibeckiḍen-nsen i yuɣen akk tamurt. 

Tasarut n tuttra-nsen ifka-yasent-id kulunil Morales. Tanekra tbeddel udem di tmurt n Arif. Morales yessen tamurt, issen idles n Arif, issen amek teẓḍa tuddsa gar twaculin, iderma, iɣerman d tewsimin n Arif. Di Officinas de Indigenas, Morales yelmed amek yella wurar gar teqbilin, gar iderma, urar n ṭṭrad s lmut neɣ n tdukli gar-asen. Di tnekra-nni n Muḥend Ameẓyan n At bu-Yifrur di 1911 mgal Spanya akked Zerhuni Bu-teɣyult, iẓra amek tekker tmurt n Arif am uḥeǧǧaǧu n tmes, srewten lâesker n Spanya, srewlen Bu-teɣyult akked lâesker-is,  qqnen-t-id am izimer di tiɣremt n Selwan. Aḥemmal-nni n imesdurar i d-ikkren, isla yis Morales, iẓra anda i yezmer ad issiweḍ. Aḥemmal-nni am win n wasif Ameqqran, ayen i d-yufa deg webrid-is ad iddu ɣef iẓuran, ur telli trewla, ur illi wental.

Deg ugraw-nni n Sylvestre deg Anwal, awal itezzi ɣef tnekra n At Arif, ɣef tikli n ’’Ben Abdelkrim’’, am akken i yas-iɣɣar Sylvestre. Mi yella wawal-nsen iḥma, abarud n Irifiyen i d-izzin i lkazirna, ikkat ur ixsi. Si yal tama, tirsasin-nsen taffgent nnig iqerra-nsen. Mi nwan ṭṭfen awrir ameqqran n Anwal, taggara ufan d nitni i yettwaṭṭfen di tzarezt deg Anwal.

Ayen i yasen-isberken tamuɣli deg Anwal, d awal-nni n jiniral Berenguer : ‘’Ur izmir ad d-yas s lâesker-is netta, ur izmir ad sen-d-yazen lâesker ugar si Mellila neɣ si Tiṭwan. Ayen illan yakan ur izmir ad d-ittwakkes anda yella, ma d ayen izemren ad d-yernu si Spanya ɣezzif ubrid-is, akken daɣ, ma ira Madrid ad d-yernu lâesker i ugar n 24000-nni i yellan deg wakal n Spanya di Tferka’’. Iɣli-d yiḍ fell-asen deg Anwal.

Si 1921 i d-teqqim tuttra tameqqrant ur tefri ɣef tedyant n Anwal : amek issaweḍ jiniral Sylvestre ad yefk lamer i lâesker-is ad iffeɣ Anwal  deg wass n 22 Yulyu 1921, akken ad yuɣal ɣer deffir, ad iddu deg ubrid n Mellila ? 

Asefru-s yusa-d seg udlis i d-iffɣen di 2088, di tebtert 24 (2) : « Di tnemmast n yiḍ, Sylvestre iɣer-asen i setta n ifesyanen imeqqranen. Gar-asen yella kulunil Morales i yellan iḥkem lâesker Irifiyen Regulares. Yiwen di setta-nni i d-teǧǧa tyita d ameddur, d kumundu Alzugaray. D netta i d-iwwin awal n Sylvestre amek yella :  « Nniɣ-awen, aqlaɣ nettwaṭṭef deg Anwal.  Ur illi lâesker ugar ad d-yasen ad aɣ-d-fken tallalt. Ilaq-aɣ ad nebnu ɣef yiman-nnaɣ kan. Di tegnitt agi taberkant, sutreɣ-awen akken ad tt-nefru ma yella ad neqqim neɣ ad neffeɣ si Anwal. D kulunil Morales i d-ineṭqen d amezwaru inna-yas : ‘’ur nezmir ad neffeɣ si Anwal acku lâesker ad d-yasen ur zmiren ad d-awḍen ɣer Ben Teyeb, d amkan n tseddarit amezwaru izemren ad iṭṭef mara neffeɣ si tesraft agi n Anwal’’. Ifesyanen nniḍen fernen tuffɣa si Anwal. Nnan-as, « ur llin waman d tgella i nnig 4 wussan ɣer zdat, ur illi uqerḍas i tyita tameqqrant ma terra tmara ». Taggara, Morales imal ɣer ifesyanen-nni. Mi yefra wawal, Sylvestre inna-yasen : “azekka ɣef 6 n tsebḥit ad neffeɣ si Anwal”… 

Azekka-nni, Sylvestre ibeddel tamuɣli -s; irna issemlal-d ifesyanen-nni, inna-yasen ayen issawel s tiligram deg yiḍ-nni izrin netta d lewzir n ṭṭrad i yellan di Madrid.  Awzir-nni, taggara ifka-d lamer i jiniral Berenguer akken ad yefk ayen yellan d lâesker ɣer Anwal. Mi yella Sylvestre iḥekku-d,   ikcem-asen-d s tazzla lqebṭan Carrasco, inna-yasen : ‘Iwweḍ-aɣ-d yiwen isalli tura : neẓra akkin 3 trebuyaâ n wazal 2000 Irifiyen di yal yiwet deg-sent, teddunt-d ɣer Anwal !».

Awal-nni n Carrasco isker aferfud di lkazirna n Anwal. Ma llan kukran i wayen heggan, awal-nni ikkes-asen akukru i Sylvestre akked ifesyanen-is. Ad ffɣen, tarewla temnaâ bab-is !

Awal n tuffɣa slan-as akk wid yellan di lkazirna. Ɣef 11 n wass, lâesker imezwura tefka-ten tebburt n lkazirna, uɣen abrid n tiɣremt n Izumar, akken ad awḍen ɣer tiɣremt n Ben Ṭeyeb. Deffir, jiniral Sylvestre isserkeb mmi-s di tkarrust-is, akken ad-t-isdari ɣef rsas n Irifyen…

Ayen iḍran ɣer zdat ittwassen . Imenɣi n Anwal uran fella-as acḥal n idlisen, acḥal n yeɣmisen, cnan-t acḥal imedyazen Irifiyen akked Tirifiyin. Deg Anwal, Irifiyen gan annar n tmes d ubarud. Si nnig 6000 iserdasen-nni yellan din, tegra-d tkemmict tedder. Sylvestre immut, Morales immut. Wid illan deg-sen d Irifiyen di Regulares, imezwura mmuten, wid inesren di tmes tamezwarut, beddeln tama, ffɣen si Regulares uɣalen d imjahden n Arif am watmaten-nsen.

Di tegnitt-nni deg tent-iferru jiniral Sylvestre ma yella ad iqqim neɣ ad iffeɣ si Anwal, Muḥend Abdelkrim illa di tesrafin-nni timezwura anda ffren yemjahden i ten-d-ikkaten seg ugemmaḍ i yifergan. Muḥend iẓra tasarut n temsalt tella di Anwal. Tasarut issarem Muḥend mačči d tin n imenɣi ameqqran. Iẓra ur izmir ad idhem tazmert-nni tameqqrant yellan deg Anwal, uzzal nni, imruden-nni. I Muḥend Abdelkrim, skud yella Sylvestre din, ur illi deg yimenɣi di tama nniḍen, ur isserɣ iɣerman, ur inɣi aytmaten-is. I Muḥend, tifrat issarem-itt ad d-tas si jiniral Berenguer akked Madrid. Ɣas issarem tifrat, awal-is inedder irgazen-nni iẓer yiwen yiwen di tesrafin. I yal yiwen, iwwet netta ad as-isefrez s wawal awezlan, s wawal aḥlawan tadyant amek tedda, tiddi n tseɣlit i wakal n imezwura.

Di tuzya-nni n tesrafin, yal yiwen wukud issawel, seg yiles yaâqel tarifit-is, yufa-d anta taqbilt neɣ iɣrem ansi d-yusa. Imlal-d ilmeẓyen n At Waryaɣen, n At Bu Yaḥi, n At Temsaman, n At Said, n At Tuzin, n At Bu Yifrur, n Izerwalen, atg. I Muḥend ikkes-as unezgum-nni amezwaru. Ass-a Arif iddukel d yiwen akken ad yeg afrag i tmurt-is. Awal n Muḥend yiwen, inehhu-ten ad sdarin iman-nsen, ad cuḥen i yaâbaren n waldun, ad sebren deg ubrid n yiseɣ.

Iṭij d ubarud serɣen tamurt n Anwal. Di lkazirna yekker herrwel, yal yiwen anda yettazzal. D taɣrast n tzizwa n war agellid. Seg ufrag akkin, Irifiyen yellan i taâssast, yal yiwen anda yentel gar wakal n tesraft d tqelmunt n tjellabt-is, ikbel akken ad isenqes fell-as aẓɣal n tafukt n yulyu. gar-asen llan wid innudmen, llan wid ifuden lluẓen, uysen wid ad d-yasen ad qqimen deg umkan-nsen. Akka yal ass, di yiwet tama ugar imjahden tisrafin, di tama nniḍen llan wid iqquren deg umkan-nsen send ad d-yas win ad iqqimen.

Izeggen wass mi ẓran idurra n lâesker n Spanya ffɣen-d si tewwurt tameqqrant. Wid iqerben tabburt, anda teffeɣ tiṭ, ẓran ayen i ten-isduqqsen : ur telli d tuffɣa n Isbenyulen ɣer imenɣi. Mi ẓran idurra-nni n lâesker, ikarrusen-nni n imejraḥ akked d tibardiwin-nni n iserdan sbabbent aqeffu n wuzzal d isufar nniḍen, tban-asen-d. Ur telli d tuffɣa ɣer imenɣi am tid n wussan-nni imezwura. Ass-a d tuffɣa si Anwal, d tarewla si lkazirna tameqqrant !

Mi yeffeɣ wawal gar yemjahden n Arif, iwweḍ wawal Muḥend Abdelkrim akked ifesyanen Irifiyen illan din, fran-as amek i d abrid-is : ad ǧǧen lâesker ad iffeɣ si lkazirna, ad iddu sin neɣ krad kilumiter, syen anda yesefk, ad d-ɣlin fell-asen Irifiyen si yal tama am tmedda. 

Mi bdan teddun s leḥder Isbenyulen deg ubrid, Irifiyen nitni d tazzla, d aneggez, d affug ɣer webrid-nni gar Anwal akked Izumar anda yedyeq ubrid zun d tinifift. Anda i wḍen yemjahden ad gen afrag si yal tama, ad ṭṭfen yal tiɣilt, anda teffeɣ tiṭ, anda yedyeq ubrid, anda tella txennaqt. Mi llan teddun s leḥder Isbenyulen, teddun tseggimen abrid iɣzen akken ad zrin ikarrusen-nsen akked iserdan-nsen, Irifiyen suffɣen awal akkin i tɣaltin. Si yal tama, imjahden yellan uɣen-d abrid, d tazzla ɣer Anwal. 

Awal-nni yeffeɣ zun d abarud : « Isbenyulen teffɣen si Anwal ; Isbenyulen rewlen  si Anwal ! ».

Awal-nni n trewla ibeddel udem n ṭṭrad. Ayen akk yellan zik d tigdi n tezmert tameqqrant n Spanya, ass-nni yekkes deg uqerru n Irifiyen yellan din : acengu yuɣal ɣer deffir, yerwel  !

Deg yidles amaziɣ, yella wawal si zik n zik : « ma tseɣleḍ, ewwet ! Ma ur tezmireḍ, ur sɣal ! ». Ass-a, Spanya tesuffeɣ-d tazmert-is, tuccar-is akken ad tekcem tamurt n Arif, tefka-d uzzal ameqqran akked yergazen, gezmen-d tamurt si Mellila, srewten, serɣen, nɣan wid ufan zdat-nsen, taggara gan iɣrem ameqqran n wuzzal d ubarud di Anwal am timmis deg wammas n tmurt n Arif. 

Tiyita-nni n Aberran akked tin n Iɣriben sduqqsent wid inwan ad ddun d tazzla di tmurt n Arif n war isennanen. Imjahden n Aberran akked wid n Iɣriben suffɣen-d isennanen n tmurt, xebcen yir axbac tazmert n Spanya. Tazarezt-nni n Anwal terna tesemɣer ugar anezgum-nni yellan di Sylvestre akked ifesyanen-is. 

Tuffɣa-nni si Anwal, akken tesnerna anezgum di Sylvestre i tekkes azaylal ɣef yemjahden n Arif. Deg uqerru n yal yiwen tamsalt tefra : Spanya tesɣel, maca ur tezmir ad tewwet , taggara tuɣal ɣer deffir, terwel !

Tuɣalin ɣer deffir, neɣ tarewla deg umennuɣ gar sin yemdanen tessawaḍ anda tella talast gar yiseɣ d war iseɣ. Illa yisem-is : d laâr. Taggara, laâr ameqqran mačči ɣer yiri n win irewlen zdat win d-ikkan nnig-s, win akken izemren ugar i yas-d-iṭṭfen tasawent. Di tidett, laâr ameqqran yerna i win ikkren ad iwwet win illan ddaw-as.

Di tuffɣa si Anwal, Spanya tesddukel-itent i snat :, tacmatt n Spanya i d-isuffɣen lmatrayuzat akked imruden ɣer ifellaḥen imelluẓa n Arif, akked tacmatt n win irewlen taggara zdat wurfan akked tnekra n ifellaḥen-nni. 

Deg uqerru n yal amjahed i d-iqqimen nnig ubrid n Izumar, tefra temsalt. Acengu yellan iteddu-d zdat-s ur iǧǧi iseɣ ɣef yiman-is akken ad as-yeg netta iseɣ. Abrid-is iban, d abarud, tama ad tekk di tayeḍ.

Tuddsa n Muḥend  simmal trennu tettseggim. S tazzla,  yal yiwen yuɣ amkan i yas-nnan. Wid izwaren ɣer zdat ddan akken ad awḍen amkan zdat Isbenyulen akken ad xemten din, wid yeǧǧa Muḥend akken ad kecmen lkazirna, qqimen ɣer deffir, ggunin. Awal n Muḥend ifra : wid iffɣen si Anwal ur d-keččmen mi tekker tyita ; amur n yemjahden ad ṭṭfen tabburt, amur ad d-ikcem si deffir akken ad isenger wid yellan d ineggura di lkazirrna.

Mi yenti rsas, tuddsa tella tebna, tewzen, tseggem.

Mi d-ffɣen lâesker imezwura si lkazirna, bḍan ɣef krad idurra : di tnemmast d Isbenyulen akked imejraḥ-nsen, si tama tayeffust akked tama taẓelmaḍt d idurra n Irifiyen n Regulares, teddun d afrag ɣef Isbenyulen-nni. Tban am uzal ! Tazarezt undin ifesyanen n Sylvestre tban ur teffir. Yal tarsast n yemjahden ad d-yasen seg yiɣil ad tezwir deg Irifiyen n Regulares am nitni. Anef-asen i Irifiyen ad msenɣen gar-asen ! D tiḥerci n izirdi !

Mi yenti rsas, d Irifiyen-nni n Regulares i ibeddlen udem, I ibeddeln ntama, nitni bdan astutti n rsas ɣef Isbenyulen yellan di tnemmast-nsen. D aḥḍun ! 

Amek i wḍen Irifiyen-nni i yellan d iserdasen n Spanya, twaxellsen, lsan, ččan nitni d iserdasen Isbenyulen, akken taggara ad rren tiɣunam n ibeckiḍen-nsen ɣer imeddukal-nsen ?

Mačči yiwet tsarut kan i yellan i fessi n tundar, i usefrez n tedyant. Ɣas di yiwet tegnitt amur ameqqran n Regulares-nni beddlen udem, yal yiwen deg-sen yella wayen i t-isseflen, ibeddel udem. Tezmer ad tili tlul-d kemmict n yergazen seg-sen i yemcawaren send ad d-ffɣen si lkazirna, fran gar-asen akken ad kkren. D yiwen ubrid, ɣas llan iberdan nniḍen. 

Imdanen-nni yellan di tkebbanit n Regulares, mačči yiwen ubrid kan i ten-iwwin. Llan wid yuɣen abrid-nni s lebɣi-nsen, iwwi-ten uɣrum di tmurt n laẓ, llan wid iddan s tmara. Di yal iɣrem i yeṭṭef lâesker n Spanya, mi fran ahuddu d userɣi, taggara ad cerḍen deg at yiɣrem-nni ad sen-d-fken irgazen neɣ ad snegren iɣrem. Anda yedda lâesker ad iglu tajlibt n yilmeẓyen, ad ten-isels akken ad isemɣer ṭṭrad s idammen n at tmurt.

Aguren-nni unekcum n Spanya ɣer tmurt ufella, si Mellila armi d Anwal,  akked imenɣiyen i d-illan gar waytmaten Irifiyen si tama-ya d tama-yen, iga-yasen anezgum i Regulares-nni. Di yal imenɣi ẓran d nitni i fernen ifesyanen d imezwura d afrag ɣer zdat, ɣer tmettant. Wid deg-sen i yeddan s tmara, ukin-as i tawla yal tikkelt ara jebden znad ɣef waytmaten-nsen.

Tuffɣa-nni n trewla si Anwal tekkes fell-asen tugdi-nni i yasen-idlen, I tent icudden acḥal iseggasen. Llan di tnemmast n lkazirna, ẓran ayen iḍerrun, sellen i wawalen gar Isbenyulen. Tigdi-nni yellan deg-sen tezzi, teffeɣ-iten, tenteḍ akkin Isbenyulen. Tuffɣa-nni si Anwal, ẓran nitni d tuffɣa n trewla ɣer Mellila. Tazmert-nni i nwan tella kan di tama n Spanya, tezzi ɣer tama n waytmaten-nsen Irifiyen i d-ikkren.

Di lkazirna n Anwal llan imir azal n 2000 Regulares. Amur ameqqran myussanen, si yiwen yiɣrem, yiwet teqbilt neɣ d aytmaten,  isddukel-iten ujajiḥ n tmes n imenɣi. Ẓran mačči d takemmict kan i yellan din, mwanasen.

Taggara n tneggura, ldint-d wallen-nsen mi ten-id-suffɣen si lkazirna, fkan-ten d idurra, yiwen udar si tama tayeffust, yiwen si tama tazelmaḍt, akken ad ilin d asfel, d afrag ɣef Isbenyulen i yeddan di tnemmast. Ticerkett meqqret, ma yella yiwen d adderɣal ad tt-iẓer.

Tifeṭṭiwejt tamezwarut, neɣ asafu i yessaɣen times n tnekra-nni ur izmir yiwen ad tt-id-ifru anta. Llant akk di tmes-nni yuɣen mi yekker ujajiḥ n rsas deg ubrid n Izumar.

Tawla akked tergagit-nni i yettaɣen imdanen mi yekker ubarud ferrunt tundar icudden, tekksent akukru-nni iteqqnen iɣallen akked ifadden. Mi yejbed znad Muḥa neɣ Ḥemmu ɣer tama n Isbenyulen, yuki yekkes fell-as uberrak-nni n rrya, n ’’Los Moros’’.

Si mi yeffeɣ waâbar amezwaru, gar Anwal akked Izumar, armi wḍen imedduren inesren ɣer tiɣremt n Ben Ṭeyeb, tamurt n Anwal tbeddel udem. 

D timeqbert n yemdanen, n iserdan, n wuzzal, n ibeckiḍen, n ikarrusen, n yal asafar. D nnger ur igguni yiwen, ur inwi yiwen izmer ad d-iḍru mi yeɣli wass-nni n 22 Yulyu 1921.

Mi yefra wass, yekcem Muḥend Abdelkrim tanemmast n lkazirna n Anwal. Iẓra abrid n tifrat akked Spanya irgel-d. Gar-as akked Spanya, yezri wasif idammen.

Deg wennar-nni n Anwal, gar tissi-nni n yergazen immuten, llan sin ufraren : Kulunil Morales akked jiniral Sylvestre.

Kulunil Morales imyussan netta d Muḥend, llan i sin d ixeddamen di Officinas de Indigenas di Mellila . Mi t-ufan immut gar iserdasen, Ifka-t Muḥend i wid i t-issawḍen ɣer tiɣremt n Sidi Dris. Mi wḍen, derren fell-as yemjahden-nni s ibeckiḍen-nsen, gan-as tiddi n yiseɣ (les honneurs militaires), wten abarud ɣer igenni,  syen fkan-t i lâesker n Spanya.  

jiniral Manuel Fernandez Sylvestre immut din. Awal n Muḥend Abdelkrim ɣef Sylvestre : «  yiwen ilemzi yufa-t immut. Ikkes-as-d agus-is akked yitran-is, iwwi yaɣ-ten-id. Mi ddan yid-s wid iddan akken ad t-afen anda yella, taggara ur ufin tafekka-s. Imḍel di tesraft anda i meḍlen wiyaḍ.»  

Ar ass-a, tafekka n Sylvestre ur iẓri yiwen anta tasraft deg temḍel, tucka di tnemmast n Anwal. jiniral Sylvestre yusa-d ad iserɣ akal n Arif, yekkes leqder ɣef imawlan n Arif, taggara yečča-t wakal n Arif.

Aḥemmal n Anwal :

Ayen issarem Muḥend Abdelkrim acḥal n waguren aya iẓra-t ilul-d, iteddu zdat wallen-is , iteddu yettumɣur ugar yal ass. Acḥal issarem Muḥend ad d-isuḍ waḍu n tnekra si tkemmict-nni n yergazen n udrar Lqama, akken ad yuɣal d aḥemmal ameqqran win ara ihudden tazmert n Spanya. Acḥal n tikkal i yessarem Muḥend ad d-tuɣal tedyant-nni n Zerhuni Bu-teɣyult asmi ddan fell-as At Arif d aglaf, d argaz d tameṭṭut, d aqcic d taqcict, d amɣar, wa s ubeckiḍ, win s umger neɣ s tazzert, snegren lâesker-is, netta cudden-t-id  aḍar afus.

Aḥemmal n wass-nni n 22 di yulyu iẓra-t Muḥend yedda si Anwal, yuɣ abrid udyiq n Ben Ṭeyeb, idda am wasif-nni n taggara n tegrest mi d-fsin ideflawen.

Mi ffɣen lâesker n Spanya si Anwal, yeffeɣ waâbar amezwaru, nitni ddan d tazzla, d anejli, wa yeǧǧa abeckiḍ-is deg ubrid, wa yeǧǧa arkasen-is akken ad yifsis, abrid-nsen ɣer tdarit n Ben Ṭeyeb. Deffir-nsen idda weglaf n Irifiyen, smeɣren-as adwi akken llan d imjahden neɣ d Regulares. Tikli-nsen yiwet, acengu-nsen yiwen. 

Lâesker  imezwura n Spanya i yewḍen ɣer tiɣremt n Ben Ṭeyeb nwan ad afen din tadarit i trewla-nsen, ad afen afrag ad d-imnagren aglaf n Irifiyen-nni i yeddan deffir-nsen. Taggara aḥemmal-nni n Irifiyen igla s lkazirna n Ben Ṭeyeb. Mi d-ẓran wid illan din  wid iwḍen s tazzla  amzun rewlen-d seg yifri n yizem, kkren rewlen ula d nitni, ddan d imezwura ɣer zdat. Teḍra i wid-nni irewlen si Anwal am tedyant n wawal nni : « Ddiɣ ad sendeɣ fell-as, iɣli-d fell-i d aɣelluy ». Lâesker yellan di Ben Ṭeyeb zwaren d nitni ɣer trewla.

Ger ifesyanen imeqqranen i yellan di Anwal, llan wid yeddren deffir trewla-nni, wten ad seggmen tikli. Abrid-nni n trewla gar Ben Ṭeyeb d Mellila yuɣal-asen d amewcar n nnger. Ɣas ifesyanen-nni wten ad sdduklen lâesker-nni yellan, akken ad sdergen iman-nsen, syen ad rren tiyita, taggara ur llin ifadden, ur zmiren ad wten. Tarewla temnaâ bab-is  ! Ur telli d tarewla, d anejli, yal yiwen iwwet ad isedreg ixef-is  !

Llant tikkal deg yif win ur ngir afus win i t-igren. Di trewla-nni n lâesker, yal yiwen anda yufa abrid yuɣ-it, anda tella terga yezger, anda tella tdarit ikmen. Ɣas wid yeddan deffir-nsen seddan lmut deg ifassen-nsen, llan Isbenyulen inesren. jiniral Navarro tuɣ-it illa di Mellila. Mi yesla s tedyant n Anwal, yusa-d si Mellila s lâesker yellan akken ad iger afus. Ira ad isddukkel lâesker-is akken ad issemɣer tazmert akken ad iqabel aḥemmal, ad iwet am akken i yas-slemden di tussna n ṭṭrad. Mi yewweḍ tiɣremt n Deryuc, imlal-d imezwura i d-irewlen si Anwal i yuki i twaɣit iḍran.  S yergazen i d-igran si trewla-nni akked lâesker yellan di  lkazirna n Deryuc, Qendusi akked Ttlata, inwa yezmer ad yeg tazmert i tyita. Anda yesarem ad yaf tayett n tallalt, Navarro yufa aɣilif ameqqran . Wid yellan di Qendusi sersen uzzal, refden ifassen-nsen send ad nnaɣen. Taggara, nɣan-ten Irifiyen akken llan. Wid yellan di lkazirna n Ttlata, ffɣen, zegren talast n tmurt n Arif, kecmen ɣer tama deg tella Fransa. Gar 1200-nni yellan di tazwara di lkazirna n Ttlata, wḍen d imedduren azal n 450 iserdasen akked 16 ifesyanen. 

Tawaɣit tameqqrant tella-d deg udrar n Aârwi : « Deg wass n 23 Yulyu, tarbaât n Navarro deg llan azal n 2700 yergazen i d-inesren si Anwal neɣ seg imukan nniḍen, tedda deg webrid n Baṭel akken ad tesseqreb ɣer Mellila. Deg ubrid-nsen, si yal tama d ajajiḥ ubarud n Irifyen. Mi wḍen Adrar n Aârwi, ggran-d kan azal n 1300 yergazen. Akken, tilufa ur frint fell-asen. Send ad kecmen lkazirna n Aârwi, lâesker n Rugulares i yellan d iaâssasen fell-asen zzin ibeckiḍen-nsen fell-asen. Wid inesren deg ubrid, taggara yečča-ten rsas zdat tebburt. Send ad d-medlen tibbura, Irifiyen zzin-asen am tirkeft.Tuffɣa tegdel fell-asen. jiniral Navarro akked 3000 iserdasen ɣlin di tesraft ». 

Tadyant-nsen tefra yir tifrat deg wass n 9 di ɣect. Mi d-tusa terbaât n imjahden n At Waryaɣen akken ad d-afen tabburt ; imjahden n At Bu Yaḥi akked Imtellsen fkan-asen udem. S tiḥila, sutren i yiserdasen n Spanya sersen uzzal-nsen, suffɣen-d ifesyanen, win-ten At Waryaɣen d imeḥbas, ma d iserdasen-nni yečča-ten rsas akken llan, negren wakali.

Tuffɣa i yessarem Navarro teffeɣ-asen d timenjert i yergazen i d-igran. Asdukkel-nni yesddukel lâesker-is akken ad yerr tiyita, taggara yesseks iserdasen ɣer udaynin n tmettant, d yir tamettant.

Di sin wussan, gar 21 d 23 Yulyu 1921, ibeddel wudem n tmurt n Arif. Tamurt-nni yeknan ddaw tezmert n Spanya ass-a teṭṭef tasawent, tessenger lâesker yuɣen tamurt ufella, tenɣa-yas ifesyanen imeqqranen, teẓẓa tigdi deg ulawen n Spanya. Irifiyen ikkes-asen kennu-nni i yasen-irẓan ifadden. Ass-a kkren, wten, srewlen acengu-nsen. 

Muḥend Abdelkrim iga-yas anezgum ameqqran i tyita-nni n Anwal. Si tama ikkes-as ukukru-nni amezwazru, iẓra tamurt-is tekker am akken i tt-isarem, si tama nniḍen uzzlen idammen imeqqranen. Tiyita n udrar n Aârwi yeffeɣ wawal-is, terna-d taluft-is. Amek ad iqqim azekka zdat Spanya ma tefka-d udem ad teqqim i tifrat ?

Tikli n Abdelkrim ur tunif akka neɣ akkin. Inwa ad ikker ad d-isuffeɣ tuccar, syen ad d-injer ubrid n tifrat send ad taweḍ ɣer imenɣi ameqqran. Sylvestre akked wid yellan di Madrid akked Mellila uɣen abrid nniḍen. Uɣen abrid uḥḍim, abrid n tɣennant, taggara fkan-tt i yeɣzer…

Aumer U Lamara

Timerna /Notes :

1) Aḍris ikkes-d seg udlis ‘’Muḥend Abdelkrim, di dewla n Ripublik’’, Aumer U Lamara, éditions L’Harmattan, Paris 2012, t. 111-124.

2) La Guerre du Rif, 1921-1926 , Courcelles-Labrousse et Marmié, éd. Points, 2008.

Auteur
Aumer U Lamara, écrivain

 




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